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Python's Hardest Problem, Revisited

One of the first long-form articles I ever posted to this blog was a piece about Python's Global Interpreter Lock (GIL) entitled "Python's Hardest Problem". Two weeks ago, it was posted to Hacker News and sat on the front page for a while, driving a lot of traffic to the blog.

In the discussion on Hacker News, some commenters mentioned that I had neglected to mention the various ways of working around the GIL. While that information didn't fit the purpose of the original article, it is nonetheless useful. In this article, I'll describe the various ways the Python community has discovered/created to mitigate the effects of the GIL. I hope this information is helpful to those who want practical advice for how to take advantage of concurrency in Python.

Batteries Included: Multiprocessing

For many workloads for which the GIL is a bottleneck, one need look no further than the Python standard library. The multiprocessing package trades threads for processes, to great effect. The idea is simple: if a single instance of the Python interpreter is constrained by the GIL, one can achieve gains in concurrent workloads by through multiple interpreter processes in place of multiple threads. Helpfully, multiprocessing was written with the same interface as the threading package, so code already using threads doesn't require a massive rewrite to make use of multiple processes.

How does it work in practice? One spawns a process in much the same way one creates a thread. The most visible difference between processes and threads is the amount of access to shared data they permit. A quick example is useful here. Suppose we are writing a RSS feed reader and want to update our feeds with any new items. We store the contents of our various feeds as a dictionary whose keys are the URL of the RSS feed and whose values are a list of that feed's entries. When we "refresh" our feeds, we simply want to add new items to the end of the associated feed list.

This is clearly a parallelizable task. With threads, we would simply give each thread a subset of the dictionary keys (i.e. feed URLs). For each key it receives, a thread will fetch new items in the associated feed and append them to the feed's item list in our dictionary. We needn't be concerned with locking the feed dictionary since we know that each thread will be appending to independent lists.

With processes, the work is still divided as before. The default behavior for processes, however, is to not share memory with the process that created them. Global variables are an exception to this, but if you're using global variables on a regular basis we have much more important things to discuss. Our child processes must share data via messaging rather than shared access to the feed dictionary. The usual issues associated with multithreaded code (like data corruption, deadlocks, etc) are no longer a concern. Since no two processes share access to memory, there is no chance of concurrent modification.

Well, that's mostly true. As it happens, there are two primary methods of communication available in multiprocessing: Queues and Pipes. While the Queue class is internally synchronized and, thus, thread and process safe, the Pipe class is not. If more than one thread or process attempts to read from or write to the same end of the same Pipe, corruption of data may occur. To protect unsafe operations, multiprocessing makes available the same synchronization primitives as threading.

Minor synchronization issues aside, all of this sounds great. That is, until we realize that sharing data via messaging requires us to make copies of everything we'd like to share. In our example, the parent process sends a portion of the keys in our dictionary (i.e. the feed URLs) to each child process. Copying keys is not an expensive operation. Retrieving the results is another matter.

Each child process must send back the contents of the set of item lists that were updated. If we have many feeds and few processes, the resulting lists may be quite large (in terms of memory usage). Since no data is shared between processes, clearly the parent process must copy the data a child process sends to it. A workflow that includes copying data, possibly multiple times, is not a recipe for an especially quick program.

To work around these limitations, one can make use of the two state-sharing methods that multiprocessing makes available: shared memory and server processes. Shared memory comes in the form of the Value and Array classes, and their names are indicative of what they're used for. Updates to a Value or Array object will be immediately visible to other processes with access to that object. Needless to say, proper use of synchronization primitives is important when using shared memory.

Alternately, the Manager class can be used to manage access to shared state by way of proxy objects. The Manager takes the data to be shared and creates proxies of them. Code interacting with these proxy objects is written as if it were interacting with the underlying data itself. All access and modification of the proxy object, however, goes through the Manager.

One advantage of the Manager over shared memory is that the Manager need to reside on the same physical machine as the processes using the proxy objects. Of course, that means that using a Manager is slower than shared memory (even when everything is on the same machine).

Now, with the state-sharing methods provided by multiprocessing, we've come full circle. The burden of managing synchronization when using separate processes for concurrency essentially is place back on the developer. Once shared state, is introduced, the developer is subject to all the attendant headaches associated with multithreaded code.

But there's a silver lining: processes can make progress on multiple threads of execution simultaneously. Since a parent process doesn't share the GIL with its child processes, all processes can execute simultaneously (subject to the constraints of the hardware and OS).


PyPy is often described as "a Python interpreter written in Python". While that's a misleading description in a number of ways, suffice it to say that PyPy is an alternative implementation of the Python interpreter that achieves (sometimes drastic) performance gains by using a JIT compiler (not unlike the JVM). The PyPy implementation does not (as many mistakenly believe) do away with the GIL. It's still present and functions much the same as the GIL in the cPython interpreter.

In August of 2011, Armin Rigo (a PyPy developer and the creator of Pysco), wrote a post on the PyPy blog that generated quite a bit of discussion. In it, he outlined a plan to add support for Software Transactional Memory (STM) to PyPy. Software Transactional Memory (and Hardware Transactional Memory (HTM)) treats modification of data as a transaction. A transaction is an atomic operation; it either proceeds in it's entirety or is completely rolled back. In PyPy's case, transactions encapsulate modification of Python objects.

It's an idea that has been around for a quite a while, but one that's receiving more attention due to the planned introduction of Hardware Transactional Memory into general purpose CPUs (some of Intel's new Haswell CPUs have support for TSX, Intel's extensions for HTM). In the most aggressive form of HTM, there is no need to use synchronization primitives to protect shared data. Each modification is recorded by the CPU; when a transaction finishes, the CPU checks if anyone else made changes to the memory in question. If no other modifications were made, the transaction succeeded and proceeds normally. If a modification was detected, the transaction is rolled back and and a "fallback" routine is executed. The fallback routine determines how (and if) the modification should be retried.

This is a potential game-changer for multithreaded programming. As "Python's Hardest Problem" described, multithreaded programming is difficult due to both the cognitive load it burdens the developer with and the challenge in debugging and proving the correctness of code. If the hardware (or software) magically handled concurrent access to data without requiring anything from the developer, multithreaded programming would be much easier.

But HTM remains quite experimental and hasn't yet gained traction. This is why, back in 2011, Armin Rigo decided that STM was the the most promising avenue for creating a "GIL-less" PyPy. Progress has been slow for the past two years (for all the reasons that progress on any Open Source project is slow), but there are signs this is about to change. In a post earlier this month, Rigo cited a number of factors that would increase the pace of development and included a number of ideas for optimizing the implementation.

The project's initial, stated goal was to include STM at a performance penalty between 2x and 5x, with the intention of reducing (and eventually eliminating) the penalty in subsequent releases. It remains to be seen if the approach taken by Rigo and others is a viable one, but PyPy's STM project is perhaps the Python community's best hope of C-based, GIL-less Python interpreter.

Alternative Python Implementations

While cPython is the official, "reference" interpreter implementation for the Python language, there are a number of alternate interpreters written in languages other than C. The two most popular are Jython and IronPython. Why are they of interest? Neither has a GIL.


Jython is a compiled Python interpreter written in Java. It is the successor to the now defunct JPython project. The Jython project's focus, above all else, is compatibility with cPython (tested using a slightly modified version of cPython's extensive regression tests).

So how did Jython do away with the GIL? Actually, it wasn't a conscious choice by the Jython developers. Because of the JVM's built-in garbage collection, there is no need to copy cPython's reference-counting implementation. Since there are no longer reference counts that need to be modified on every object, we are free to remove the GIL (which is primarily used for safe manipulation of reference counts on all PyObjects).

That's not to say that, when using Jython, one can ignore modification of shared state in one's own Python code. The GIL doesn't protect one from multithreaded Python programs (otherwise there would be no need for threading to provide synchronization primitives). Rather, it protects the interpreter itself from corrupting the bookkeeping data associated with every Python object.

Still, with no GIL, Jython programs can take full advantage of all of the cores on a machine (our "Holy Grail"). Jython, however, is not without its drawbacks.

For starters, it does not support any C extensions. This is a deal-breaker for many people as a ton of popular Python packages make use C extensions. Additionally, development and feature support lag well behind cPython. The beta for Python 2.7 was released in February of this year (and has not seen a release since). Python 2.5 is the officially supported version of Python in Jython. For reference, 2.5 was released September 2006. So it's fair to say that compatibility is a very real problem for Jython.

Lastly, there a number of areas where Jython (by its own admission) is slower than cPython. Any Python standard library modules written in C (and there are a lot of them), Jython implements in Python. These could be rewritten in Java, but the amount of optimization done cPython's C-based modules is pretty extensive. Jython is unlikely to approach the speed of cPython modules written in C any time soon.


Just as Jython is a compiled Python interpreter written in Java, IronPython is a compiled interpreter written in C#, making it compatible with the rest of the .NET ecosystem. Much like Jython, the GIL is rendered unnecessary due to the .NET DLR's garbage collector. Also like Jython, IronPython benefits from a JIT compiler to achieve speedups in longer running programs.

While IronPython programs can take full advantage of multicore hardware, the drawbacks of IronPython are largely the same as those of Jython. C extensions are somewhat supported using "IronClad", a commercial tool developed by Resolver Systems. This support only extends to Python 2.6 extensions on (increasingly rare) 32-bit Windows systems, though, and no code has been committed to the project since 2011. I think it's fair to say that C extensions are basically unsupported (especially in the 2.7 version of IronPython).

Again, performance is a mixed bag. While the JIT compiler give IronPython a leg-up in certain areas, there are many areas in which IronPython is considerably slower than cPython (especially the built-in data structures that are written in highly-optimized C for cPython). Whether or not your code will run faster or slower on IronPython depends heavily on your workload.

Missing the forest for the trees

Our discussion of IronPython and Jython has focused on the fact that neither implementation has a GIL, but that's really of little interest to most developers using either of them. Both projects were created not to merely implement the cPython interpreter in another language, but to allow Python code to interact with other parts of each interpreter's ecosystem. Calling Java code from Jython is straightforward. To companies and individual developers operating in a Java-centric environment, this is a huge win. Likewise, IronPython allows Python code to interact with the rest of the .NET ecosystem.

So while neither is likely to become the reference implementation for Python, that wasn't the goal of either project to begin with. It's not fair to judge them on their speed or knock their compatibility with C extensions. That was never their goal. Truly, they are both incredible projects that have been wildly successful at accomplishing what they set out to do. Most "vanilla" Python developers won't use alternate interpreters to increase performance of multithreaded code. And that's just fine.

Third Party Libraries

There are a number of libraries that extend the capabilities of the cPython interpreter in some way. None, to my knowledge, affect the GIL in any way. Many people are under the assumption that Stackless Python has somehow removed the GIL (it hasn't). The same goes for [eventlet] (http://eventlet.net), greenlet, Twisted, gevent, and Tornado (all of which I've been mistakenly told at some point have no GIL). Some of these packages and frameworks help alleviate the pain associated with the GIL, but all are subject to its limitations.

In Summary

When I originally wrote "Python's Hardest Problem", my goal was to introduce Python novices to the GIL, explain its function, discuss a bit of its history. "Hardest" in the title was meant to be interpreted as "most technically challenging," not "most important" or "most interesting to everyday programmers," but that's not how a number of people took it. This is surely due to a lack of clarity on my part, but I hope that this post will help rectify that. There are likely a number of approaches/tools to dealing with the GIL I did not mention here. Feel free to point them out in the comments.

My goal for this post is to enumerate a number of ways the community has dealt with the issues the GIL presents for novice Python programmers. If you feel any of the information above is incorrect or misleading, please let me know in the comments or via email at jeff@jeffknupp.com.

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